Archiwum kategorii: Informatyka

Przywróćmy wzrok Panu Waldkowi !

Pan Waldek Kraśnicki od dzieciństwa cierpi na retinopatię barwnikową,

która w niemalże całkowitym stopniu ogranicza pole widzenia.

Co więcej od dzieciństwa porusza się o kulach. Posiada pierwszą grupę inwalidzką.

Pomimo tego jest informatykiem, który utrzymuje swoją czteroosobową rodzinę oraz opiekuje się całkowicie niewidomą żoną.

Możliwość poprawienia jego wzroku niesie terapia komórkami macierzystymi.

Dochody, które zaspokajają minimalne miesięczne potrzeby rodziny oraz zakup leków nie pozwalają na pokrycie kosztownej operacji (20 000 PLN), która w znacznym stopniu przywróciłaby mu wzrok.

Z roku na rok obserwuje się jego coraz mniejszą samodzielność związaną z pogłębiającymi się problemami zdrowotnymi, dlatego naszym celem jest przywrócenie wzroku Panu Waldkowi. Każdy Państwa gest jest ważny ponieważ prowadzi do poprawy samodzielności jego rodziny!

Razem pomożemy mu ujrzeć swoją rodzinę, aby mógł jeszcze lepiej się o nią troszczyć!

Tak Pan Waldek widzi

Tak będzie widział!

G, E, 3G, H, H+, LTE


LTE – Long Term Evolution (4G*)

LTE provides the fastest data network connection at the present time, in theory offering speeds of up to 100 Mb/s. LTE is faster than many home broadband connections, and as such allows for rapid downloads, streaming of Full HD videos or music, and very rapid page loads. giffgaff is currently preparing to upgrade its network to LTE, but for now you won’t be seeing this icon on your phone.  

*LTE is confusingly often associated with the term 4G. In reality, the 4G standard is one that hasn’t quite been reached yet – that would require speeds of 1 Gb/s, about ten times faster than current LTE networks. The proliferation of the term is unfortunate, but until true 4G networks are available then you can just take the two terms to be synonymous in practice.

H+ – HSDPA Plus
HSDPA Plus is the fastest data network currently supported by giffgaff, at around 21 Mb/s. In many versions of Android „H+” is shown, but on Android 4.4 it is just displayed as „H”. H+ allows you to easily stream HD videos and is comparable to the average home broadband connection.

H – HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Access)
HSDPA is a slightly slower version of HSDPA+, offering data speeds of around 7.2 Mb/s. This is about the minimum speed for reliably streaming video content at HD resolution, and still offers pretty good web surfing and music streaming.

3G – 3rd Generation (aka UMTS)
3G data networks were the first to support video calling, with download speeds of up to 2 Mb/s (although initially speeds of only 384 Kb/s were supported). It was at this stage that mobile internet got decent, and we saw an explosion of new capabilities for mobile phones in the early 2000s (like email, vis a vis BlackBerry).


E – EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution)
EDGE can be thought of as 2.75G, offering speeds of up to 384 kb/s. EDGE was developed as a cheap way for carriers to upgrade their 2G networks to nearly 3G speeds, without needing to build all-new infrastructure. EDGE is relatively uncommon in the UK, but you do get it from time to time and it’s generally enough to look something up if you have the patience. Interestingly, this means that EDGE came after 3G even though it’s a slower standard.

G – GPRS (General Packet Radio Service)
GPRS is a little faster than the earlier GSM standard which first popularised data connections. For that reason, GPRS is called 2.5G – an improvement on 2G, but not quite big enough to require a new number. Data speeds are around 115 kb/s, which is enough to load a simple webpage or maybe your train timetable (if you have a consistent connection and some patience).
This was the first „always-on” data service, and the oldest one that you’ll connect to using an Android, iOS or Windows Phone. While older networks exist, you aren’t likely to come across them these days and it’s best left for the historically minded.

In Summary
Symbol Name Generation Download Speeds UK Date
G GPRS 2G 0.1 Mb/s 2000
E EDGE 2.5G 0.4 Mb/s 2006
3G 3G 3G 2 Mb/s 2003
H HSDPA 3.5G 7.2 Mb/s 2006
H+ HSDPA+ 3.75G 21 Mb/s 2011
LTE LTE / 4G 4G 100 Mb/s 2013
That chart really puts into perspective how rapidly mobile internet speeds have improved in the last decade or so – we’ve seen about a 1000x increase in internet speeds. With LTE-Advanced and other 'true' 4G networks on the horizon, capable of streaming 4K video and probably some stuff we’re not even aware of, we’re not due to slow down any time soon!

Sieci – słownik pojęć

802.11n – 802.11n builds upon previous 802.11 standards by adding MIMO (multiple-input
multiple-output). MIMO uses multiple transmitter and receiver antennas to allow for increased data throughput via spatial multiplexing and increased range by exploiting the spatial diversity, perhaps through coding schemes like Alamouti coding. The Enhanced Wireless Consortium (EWC) [3] was formed to help accelerate the IEEE 802.11n development process and promote a technology specification for interoperability of next-generation wireless local area networking (WLAN) products.
802.11b – The 802.11b standard specifies a wireless networking at 11 Mbps using
direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DSSS) technology and operating in the unlicensed radio
spectrum at 2.4GHz, and WEP encryption for security. 802.11b networks are also referred to
as Wi-Fi networks.
802.11g – specification for wireless networking at 54 Mbps using direct-sequence
spread-spectrum (DSSS) technology, using OFDM modulation and operating in the
unlicensed radio spectrum at 2.4GHz, and backward compatibility with IEEE 802.11b devices,
and WEP encryption for security.
Access Point – A device that allows wireless-equipped computers and other devices to
communicate with a wired network. Also used to expand the range of a wireless network.
Ad-hoc Network – An ad-hoc network is a group of computers, each with a wireless adapter, connected as an independent IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN. Ad-hoc wireless computers operate on a peer-to-peer basis, communicating directly with each other without the use of an access point. Ad-hoc mode is also referred to as an Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS) or as peer-to-peer mode, and is useful at a departmental scale or SOHO operation.
AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) – A security method that uses symmetric 128-bit block
data encryption.
ACS (Auto-Configuration Server) – Through ACS (Auto-Configuration Server) you can
perform auto-configuration, provision, collection, and diagnostics to the device.
ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) – ATM is a cell based transfer mode that requires
variable length user information to be segmented and reassembled to/from short, fixed length cells. It uses two different methods for carrying connectionless network interconnect traffic, routed and bridged Protocol Data Units (PDUs), over an ATM network.
Bridging – A device that connects different networks.
Browser – An application program that provides a way to look at and interact with all the
information on the World Wide Web.
DDNS (Dynamic Domain Name System) – Allows the hosting of a website, FTP server, or
e-mail server with a fixed domain name (e.g., and a dynamic IP address.
Default Gateway – A device that forwards Internet traffic from your local area network.
DHCP – A networking protocol that allows administrators to assign temporary IP addresses to network computers by “leasing” an IP address to a user for a limited amount of time, instead of assigning permanent IP addresses.
DMZ (Demilitarized Zone) – Removes the Router’s firewall protection from one PC, allowing it to be “seen” from the Internet.
DNS (Domain Name Server) – The IP address of your ISP’s server, which translates the
names of websites into IP addresses.
Domain – A specific name for a network of computers.
DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) – An always-on broadband connection over traditional phone
Dynamic IP Address – A temporary IP address assigned by a DHCP server.
EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) – A general authentication protocol used to control
network access. Many specific authentication methods work within this framework.
Encryption – Encoding data transmitted in a network.
Ethernet – IEEE standard network protocol that specifies how data is placed on and retrieved from a common transmission medium.
Firewall – A set of related programs located at a network gateway server that protects the
resources of a network from users from other networks.
Gateway – A device that interconnects networks with different, incompatible communications protocols.
IEEE 802.11b – The IEEE 802.11b standard specifies a wireless networking at 11 Mbps using
direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DSSS) technology and operating in the unlicensed radio
spectrum at 2.4GHz, and WEP encryption for security. IEEE 802.11b networks are also
referred to as Wi-Fi networks.
IEEE 802.11g – Specification for wireless networking at 54 Mbps using direct-sequence
spread-spectrum (DSSS) technology, using OFDM modulation and operating in the
unlicensed radio spectrum at 2.4GHz, and backward compatibility with IEEE 8021b devices,
and WEP encryption for security.
Infrastructure Network – An infrastructure network is a group of computers or other devices, each with a wireless adapter, connected as an IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN. In infrastructure mode, the wireless devices communicate with each other and to a wired network by first going through an access point. An infrastructure wireless network connected to a wired network is referred to as a Basic Service Set (BSS). A set of two or more BSS in a single network is referred to as an Extended Service Set (ESS). Infrastructure mode is useful at a corporation scale, or when it is necessary to connect the wired and wireless networks.
IP Address – The address used to identify a computer or device on a network.
IPoA (IP and ARP over ATM) – A protocol that provides extensions to the IP Group for
handling IP over ATM flows.
ISP (Internet Service Provider) – A company that provides access to the Internet.
LAN – The computers and networking products that make up your local network.
MAC (Media Access Control) Address – The unique address that a manufacturer assigns to
each networking device.
NAT (Network Address Translation) – NAT technology translates IP addresses of a local area
network to a different IP address for the Internet.
MER (MAC Encapsulation Routing) – MER allows IP packet to be carried as bridged frames.
There are many applications, such as IPoA, DSL networks and other frame-based network.
Depending on your equipment, they can be either bridged or routed within the network.
Network – A series of computers or devices connected for the purpose of data sharing,
storage, and/or transmission between users.
Ping (Packet Internet Groper) – An Internet utility used to determine whether a particular IP
address is online.
Port – The connection point on a computer or networking device used for plugging in cables or adapters.
PPPoE (Point to Point Protocol over Ethernet) – PPPoE stands for Point to Point protocol over
Ethernet, this protocol is used as a type of broadband connection that provides authentication (username and password) in addition to data transport.
PPPoA (Point to Point Protocol over ATM) – PPPoA stands for Point to Point protocol over
ATM, this protocol is also used as a type of broadband connection that provides
authentication (username and password) in addition to data transport.
RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service) – A protocol that uses an
authentication server to control network access.
RJ45 (Registered Jack-45) – An Ethernet connector that holds up to eight wires.
Router – A networking device that connects multiple networks together.
RPC (Remote Procedure Calls) – RPC is a powerful technique for constructing distributed,
client-server based applications. It is based on extending the notion of convention, or local
procedure calling, so that the called procedure need not exist in the same address space as
the calling procedure. The two processes may be on the same system, or they may be on
different systems with a network connecting them. By using RPC, programmers of distributed applications avoid the details of the interface with the network. The transport independence of RPC isolates the application from the physical and logical elements of the data communications mechanism and allows the application to use a variety of transports.
Server – Any computer whose function in a network is to provide user access to files, printing, communications, and other services.
SOHO (Small Office/Home Office) – Market segment of professionals who work at home or in
small offices.
SSID – A Service Set Identification is a thirty-two character (maximum) alphanumeric key
identifying a wireless local area network. For the wireless devices in a network to
communicate with each other, all devices must be configured with the same SSID. This is
typically the configuration parameter for a wireless PC card. It corresponds to the ESSID in
the wireless Access Point and to the wireless network name.
Static IP Address – A fixed address assigned to a computer or device that is connected to a
Static Routing – Forwarding data in a network via a fixed path.
Subnet Mask – An address code that determines the size of the network.
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) – A network protocol for transmitting data that requires
acknowledgement from the recipient of data sent.
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) – A set of instructions PCs use to
communicate over a network.
TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) – a wireless encryption protocol that provides dynamic
encryption keys for each packet transmitted.
UDP (User Datagram Protocol) – A network protocol for transmitting data that does not require acknowledgement from the recipient of the data that is sent.
VCI (Virtual Channel Identifier) – The identifier of the VC contained in the ATM cell header.
VPI (Virtual Path Identifier) – The identifier of the VP contained in the ATM cell header.
Update – To replace existing software or firmware with a newer version.
VLAN (Virtual Local Air Network) – Logical subgroups that constitute a Local Area Network
(LAN). This is done in software rather than defining a hardware solution.
VLAN ID (0-4095) – Indicates the ID number of the VLAN being configured. Up to 256 VLANs
can be created.
WAN (Wide Area Network) – Networks that cover a large geographical area.
Web-based Utility – The web page that allows you to manage the Router.
WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) – A data privacy mechanism based on a 64-bit or 128-bit or
152- bit shared key algorithm, as described in the IEEE 802.11g standard.
Wi-Fi – A trade name for the IEEE 802.11b wireless networking standard, given by the
Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA, see, an industry
standards group promoting interoperability among IEEE 802.11b devices.
WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) – A group of computers and associated devices
communicate with each other wirelessly, which network serving users are limited in a local
WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) – A wireless security protocol use TKIP (Temporal Key
Integrity Protocol) encryption, which can be used in conjunction with a RADIUS server.